ALL ABOUT SMARTPHONES .The features of mobile phones are the set of capabilities, services and applications that they offer to their users. Mobile phones are often referred to as feature phones, and offer basic telephon[clarification needed] Handsets with more advanced computing ability through the use of native code try to differentiate their own products by implementing additional functions to make them more attractive to consumers. This has led to great innovation in mobile phone development over the past 20 years.

The common components found on all phones are:

  • roaming which permits the same phone to be used in multiple countries, providing that the operators of both countries have a roaming agreement.
  • send and receive data and faxes (if a computer is attached), access WAP services, and provide full Internet access using technologies such as GPRS.
  • applications like a clockalarmcalendarcontacts, and calculator and a few games.
  • Sending and receiving pictures and videos (by without internet) through MMS, and for short distances with e.g. Bluetooth.
  • In Multimedia phones Bluetooth is commonly but important Feature.
  • Push to talk, available on some mobile phones, is a feature that allows the user to be heard only while the talk button is held, similar to a walkie-talkie.
  • A hardware notification LED on some phones.

MOS integrated circuit chips ALL ABOUT SMARTPHONES ALL ABOUT [edit]

A typical smartphone contains a number of metal–oxide–semiconductor (MOS) integrated circuit (IC) chips,[1] which in turn contain billions of tiny MOS field-effect transistors (MOSFETs).[2] A typical smartphone contains the following MOS IC chips.[1]

User interface[edit]

Key pad of a Nokia 3720

Besides the number keypad and buttons for and declining calls (typically from left to right and coloured green and red respectively), button mobile phones commonly feature two option keys, one to the left and one to the right, and a four-directional D-pad which may feature a center button which acts in resemblance to an “Enter” and “OK” button.

Software, applications and services[edit]


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Software-side view of a typical smartphone

See also: Mobile Industry Processor InterfaceMobile operating systemApp store, and Mobile app

The first mobile news service, delivered via SMS, was launched in Finland in 2000. Mobile news services are expanding with many organizations providing “on-demand” news services by SMS. Some also provide “instant” news pushed out by SMS.

Some network operators have utilized USSD for information, entertainment or finance services (e.g. M-Pesa).

Other non-SMS data services used on . In 1999, Japanese mobile operator NTT DoCoMo introduced its mobile Internet service, i-Mode, which today is the world’s largest mobile Internet service.

Even after the appearance of smartphones, network operators have continued to offer information services, although in some places, those services have become less common.

Power supply

Mobile phone charging service in Uganda

The world’s five largest handset makers introduced a new rating system in November 2008 to help consumers more easily identify the most energy-efficient chargers.[8]


Most modern mobile phones use a lithium-ion battery.[11][12][13] A popular early mobile phone battery was the nickel metal-hydride (NiMH) type, due to its relatively small size and low weight. Lithium-ion batteries later became commonly used, as they are lighter and do not have the voltage depression due to long-term over-charging that nickel metal-hydride batteries do. Many mobile phone manufacturers use lithium–polymer batteries as opposed to the older lithium-ion, the main advantages being even lower weight and the possibility to make the battery a shape other than strict cuboid.[14]

SIM card[edit]

Main articles: Subscriber Identity Module and Removable User Identity Module

A SIM card contains its unique serial number, internationally unique number of the mobile user (IMSI), security authentication and ciphering information, temporary information related to the local network, a list of the services the user has access to and two passwords (PIN for usual use and PUK for unlocking).

The first SIM card was made in 1991 by Munich smart card maker Giesecke & Devrient for the Finnish wireless network operator Radiolinja. Giesecke & Devrient sold the first 300 SIM cards to Elisa (ex. Radiolinja).

A similar module called a Removable User Identity Module or RUIM card is present in some CDMA networks, notably in China and Indonesia.



A hybrid mobile phone can take more than one SIM card, even of different types. The SIM and RUIM cards can be mixed together, and some phones also support three or four SIMs.[15][16]


From 2010 onwards they became popular in India and Indonesia and other emerging markets,[17] attributed to the desire to obtain the lowest on-net calling rate. In Q3 2011, Nokia shipped 18 million of its low cost dual SIM phone range in an attempt to make up lost ground in the higher end smartphone market.[18]


Mobile phones have a display device, some of which are also touch screens. The screen size varies greatly by model and is usually specified either as width and height in pixels or the diagonal measured in inches.

Some phones have more than one display, for example the Kyocera Echo, an Android smartphone with a dual 3.5 inch screen. The screens can also be combined [19]

Central processing unis[edit]

Nokia and the University of Cambridge demonstrated a bendable cell phone called the Morph.[21] Some phones have an electromechanical transducer on the back which changes the electrical voice signal into mechanical vibrations. The vibrations flow through the cheek bones or forehead allowing the user to hear the conversation. This is useful in the noisy situations or if the user is hard of hearing.[22]

As of 2018, there are smartphones that offer reverse wireless charging.[23]

Multi-mode and multi-band mobile phones[edit]

For a GSM phone, dual-band usually means 850 / 1900 MHz in the United States and Canada, 900 / 1800 MHz in Europe and most other countries. Tri-band means 850 / 1800 / 1900 MHz or 900 / 1800 / 1900 MHz. Quad-band means 850 / 900 / 1800 / 1900 MHz, also called a world phone, since it can work on any GSM network.

Multi-band phones have been valuable to enable roaming whereas multi-mode phones helped to introduce WCDMA features without customers having to give up the wide coverage of GSM. Almost every single true 3G phone sold is actually a WCDMA/GSM dual-mode mobile. This is also true of 2.75G phones such as those based on CDMA-2000 or EDGE.

Challenges in producing multi-mode phones[edit]

The special challenge involved in producing a multi-mode mobile is in finding ways to share the components between the different standards. Obviously, the phone keypad and display should be shared, otherwise it would be hard to treat as one phone. Beyond that, though, there are challenges at each level of integration. How difficult these challenges are depends on the differences between systems. When talking about IS-95/GSM multi-mode phones, for example, or AMPS/IS-95 phones, the base band processing is very different from system to system. This leads to real difficulties in component integration and so to larger phones.


Main article: Mobile Internet

Mobile phones are now heavily used for data communications. such as SMS messages, browsing mobile web sites, and even streaming audio and video files. The main limiting factors are the size of the screen, lack of a keyboard, processing power and connection speed. Most cellphones, which supports data communications, can be used as wireless modems (via cable or bluetooth), to connect computer to inter

Main article: Mobile virus

Main articles: Videophone and Camera phone

Bluetooth phones are also subject to bluejacking, which although not a virus, does allow for the transmission of unwanted message ALL ABOUT SMARTPHONES

Main articles: Videophone and Camera phone


  1. ^ Baliga, Bantval Jayant (2005). Silicon RF Power MOSFETSWorld Scientific. pp. 1–2. ISBN 9789812561213.
  2. ^ “LDMOS Products and Solutions”NXP Semiconductors. Retrieved 4 December 2019.
  3. ^ — Powermat wireless charger now available
  4. ^ Charge Use Mini Solar Panel | Android Phones.
  5. ^ “Keywords to understanding Sony Energy Devices – keyword 1991”Sony Energy Devices CorporationSony. Archived from the original on 4 March 2016. Retrieved 7 December 2019.
  6. ^ “Cell Phone Battery Guide”. Archived from the original on 11 June 2010. Retrieved 16 June 2010.
  7. ^ Example of a Triple SIM hybrid phone.
  8. ^ The Latest F160 Quad Sim Quad Standby TV Java Phone with Qwerty Keyboard | Tri Sim Phones.
  9. ^ “Smartphone boom lifts phone market in first quarter – Yahoo! News” Archived from the original on May 8, 2011.
  10. ^ “Nokia boosted by sales of cheap handsets”. October 20, 2011. Archived from the original on 2022-12-11.
  11. ^ Kyocera Echo Phone Review | PCWorld.
  12. ^ “CPU Frequency”CPU World Glossary. CPU World. 25 March 2008. Retrieved 1 January 2010.
  13. ^ Reardon, Marguerite. “Nokia demos bendable cell phone”CNET News, February 25, 2008. Retrieved 20 July 2009.
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